Theism is the belief in the existence of God. According to Theism, God is neither fully immanent nor transcendent; He is both immanent and transcendent. Thus theism is a synthesis of Deism and Pantheism. This is the view of almost all great religions of the majority of religious thinkers and many great philosophers.
According to Hegel, God is both immanent and transcendent in human and lifely being. But according to Martineau God is transcendent from living things. After creation He has given freedom of will to His creatures. But His infinite power and potentialities are not fully exhausted in this finite world.
Criticism: Theism is criticized in the following ways:
Merits: 01. Theism escapes the special disadvantages that attach to deism and pantheism.
02. It is stimulating to man's higher aspirations and struggles for better existence.
Defects: 01. But theism cannot maintain the infinitude of God. If God transcends the finite spirits, He becomes limited
02. Theism seeks to serve man's freedom but its success is doubtful. Because man is not and cannot be absolutely free.
03. Theism cannot solve the problems of Evil.
At last we can say there are different opinions in the regard of God. Theism, Deism and Pantheism are different from of to another. But all of these acknowledge the existence of God.
Creation and Evolution
We have some ideas of the general nature of the world and we shall have more form our ontological considerations. Meanwhile let us try to enter into the mystery of its origin, growth of development.
The question of origin may be said to have two complementary aspects. First, how could the there be a world or any existence at all? Secondly, how could the world come to possess so many kinds of things? Common sense and religious dogma answer the first question by their belief in a supreme being, namely, God. Since God is believed to be eternal, the question in apparently answered. Philosophers do not always take special interest in this question and usually take for granted some ultimate being as eternally there. Sometimes, following religion, this first being is called God; but more often it is called the ultimate reality, the Absolute or simply Nature.
As to the second question, the traditional answer of religion and common sense is the old theory of special creation. Sometimes philosophy also has held a similar view. But the more widely held view in the scientific and philosophical circles is the theory of Evolution.
He believed that people are not social beings by nature. He stated that people living in a natural condition, isolated and without language are kind and without motive or impulse to hurt one-another. However, he did not invite to go back to natural condition. He believed that laws should express the general will of the people. Any kind of government could be considered legitimate, if social organization was by common consent. Rousseau also have us idea about the development of science and arts. Only science is not good. He suggested that you should mix science with arts. Rousseau was more than a philosopher. As the French Revolution created the sense of brotherhood and equality in the society, Rousseau had profound contribution to humanity.