Arguments for the existence of God come in many different forms; some draw on history, some on science, some on personal experience, and some on philosophy. Here the arguments for the existence of God are given from philosophical point of view. In philosophy four factors are discussed to demonstrate the existence of God. These are:-
01. The Ontological Argument
02. The Cosmological arguments/The First Cause Argument
03. The teleological argument/The Argument from Design
04. The Moral Argument
These arguments, however, have not played any vital part in converting the not believers to religious belief. However, these things are written below:-
The Ontological Argument: The first purported proof of the existence of God is the ontological argument.
The ontological argument is an argument for God's existence based entirely on reason. According to this argument, there is no need to go out looking for physical evidence of God's existence; we can work out that he exists just by thinking about it. Philosophers call such arguments a priori arguments. St. Anselem, Descartes have initiated this argument.
St. Anselem: He says,
01. We have the previous idea about the Perfect being. This Perfect being is God.
02. We are to emit the Existence in Necessity. This Existence is God.
Descestes: He says:
01. We have previous idea about God. This idea is given by God in our heart.
02. Men are limited. So, for limited men, it is not possible to create other limited things. But God is unlimited. So, for God it is possible to create everything
Only idea can not prove anything.
01. We have previous idea about God, It is illogical
02. Idea about unlimited truth, perfect being etc. is negative.
03. Existence in not a quality but a reality
04. Idea leads us to the existence of thought not to existence of reality.
The Cosmological arguments/The First Cause Argument: The second purported proof of the existence of God is the first cause argument, also called "the cosmological argument". The first cause argument seeks to prove the existence of God from the fact that the universe exists. The universe came into existence at a point in the distant past. Nothing can come into existence, though, unless there is something to bring it into existence; nothing comes from nothing. There must therefore be some being outside of the universe that caused the universe to exist.
In a word the first cause argument (or "cosmological argument") takes the existence of the universe to entail the existence of a being that created it. It does so based on the fact that the universe had a beginning. There must, the first cause argument says, be something that caused that beginning, a first cause of the universe. The argument proceeds by suggesting that if the universe has a beginning, then there must be something outside it that brought it into existence. This being outside the universe, this Creator, the first cause argument tells us, is God.
According to this argument-
01. For every creation, there is a cause. That very cause is God.
02. For every cause, there is previous cause. That previous cause in God.
03. The whole world is probable. So, for a possibility, existence in necessity is possible. But it is possible only for the rigid God.
01. It is not reasonable for the limited men to deal with the unlimited Being because human being is limited but God is unlimited Being.
02. This theory is also based on idea.
The teleological argument/The Argument from Design: The third purported proof of the existence of God is the argument from design, also called "the teleological argument". The argument from design seeks to prove the existence of God from the fact that the universe is ordered.
The universe could have been different from the way that it is in many ways. It could have had different laws of physics; it could have had a different arrangement of planets and stars; it could have begun with a more powerful or a weaker big bang.
Without any purpose nothing is created. This world has a purpose after its creation. This purpose is the purpose of God.
01. To prove the existence by purpose is difficult.
02. To prove the purpose by experience is also difficult.
03. Only action and purpose can not prove the existence of God.
04. There are some regularities and irregularities in the action.
05. There are some actions without purpose.
The Moral Argument: The fourth purported proof of the existence of God is the moral argument. The moral argument seeks to prove the existence of God from the fact that there are moral laws. The moral argument appeals to the existence of moral laws as evidence of God's existence. According to this argument, there couldn't be such a thing as morality without God.
There are some moral senses-
01. Sense of morality: As a social being, we are to follow some senses of morality. This idea of morality is the gift of God.
02. Sense of duty: Sense of duty is a must in the civilized society which is also given by God.
03. Sense of happiness: In our different activities we are to feel the happiness. This happiness is created by God.
04. Martimeaus opinion: He has also given importance on the sense of duty. Because it is logical to show respect and response to the duty for the pleasure of the Supreme Being (God) not for the limited power-human being.
01. Morality is a relative term.
02. Morality has no natural existence
03. It's an imaginative idea.
04. It has no value to the non-believers.
05. Morality leads us to the mind not to the real existence of God.
These proofs could not establish God's existence beyond doubt and faith. however, the arguments could not be termed as valueless. The idea of God being present everywhere and watching human deeds has worked as a great deterrent factor for people who are tempted to harm others for their personal benefits. The different concepts of God have inspired mankind to adopt spiritual life. Even in Islam and Christianity, the notion of God has nourished the religious conscience of Muslims and Christians. Therefore, this notion is indispensable for religion.